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Biology: Glossary In Behavioral Ecology

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  • أ.رحاب
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    :Ritual
    The use of symbolic activity, so that usually no serious harm is done to either combatant


    :Search Image
    A set of key characteristics that will lead it to the desired object


    :Sign Stimulus
    An external sensory stimulus that triggers a fixed action pattern


    :Social Behavior
    Any kind of interaction between two or more animals, usually of the same species


    :Sociobiology
    The study of social behavior based on evolutionary theory


    :Taxis
    An automatic, oriented movement toward or away from a stimulus


    :Territory
    An area that an individual defends, usually excluding other members of its own species. Typically used for feeding, mating, and/or rearing young. Animal defends it through agnostic behavior


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  • أ.رحاب
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    :Operant Conditioning
    A type of associative learning that directly affects behavior in a natural context; also called trial-and-error learning. Learning to associate a behavior with a reward or punishment and then tending to repeat or avoid that behavior. Directly affects behavior in natural context


    :Optimal Foraging
    The concept that natural selection will favor animals that choose foraging strategies that maximize the differential between benefits and costs


    :Parental Investment
    The time and resources and individual must expend to produce offspring


    :Pheromone
    A small, volatile chemical signal that functions in communication between animals and acts much like a hormone in influencing physiology and behavior


    :Play
    Behavior with no apparent external goal but involves movements closely associated with goal-directed behaviors


    :Polyandry
    A polygamous mating system involving one female and many males


    :Polygamous
    Individual of one sex mating with several of the other


    :Polygamy
    Single male and many females


    :Reciprocal Altruism
    Altruistic behavior between unrelated individuals; believed to produce some benefit to the altruistic individual in the future when the current beneficiary reciprocates


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    :Inclusive Fitness
    The total effect an individual has on proliferating its genes by producing its own offspring and by providing aid that enables other close relatives to increase the production of their offspring


    :Kinesis
    A simple change in activity rate in response to a stimulus


    :Kin Selection
    Mechanism increasing inclusive fitness


    :Learning
    Experience-based modification of behavior. Various forms of learning. Learning can affect innate behavior. Learning ranges from simple behavioral changes to complex problem solving


    :Lek
    A small area males (many bird and inspect species) display communally


    :Maturation
    Ongoing developmental changes in neuromuscular system that may result in behavioral change


    :Migration
    Regular movement over relatively long distances. Mechanisms used include piloting, orientation, and navigation


    :Monogamous
    One male mating with one female


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  • أ.رحاب
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    :Cognition
    Ability of an animal's nervous system to perceive, store, process, and use information gathered by sensory receptors. Relates to how animal brains represent physical stimuli from the environment


    :Cognitive Ethology
    Attempts to illustrate the connection between data processing by nervous systems and animal behavior


    :Cognitive Maps
    Internal representations, or codes, (formulated by many animals) of spatial relationships among objects in their surroundings


    :Critical Period
    Limited phase in an individual animal's development when learning of particular behaviors can take place (imprinting.) Can take place in both younger and older animals in various durations


    :Dominance Hierarchy
    A linear "pecking order" of animals, where position dictates characteristic social behaviors. (Alpha, beta.) The top ranked is assured access to resources and controls behaviors of others in groups. Stabilize density


    :Ethology
    Research field in which naturalists try to understand how a variety of animals behave in their natural habitats


    :(Fixed Action Pattern (FAP
    A highly stereotypical behavior that is innate and must be carried to completion once initiated. Essentially unchangeable sequence of behavioral acts. Usually carried to completion once initiated. Triggered by sign stimulus


    :Habituation
    A simple kind of learning involving a loss of sensitivity to unimportant stimuli, allowing an animal to conserve time and energy


    :Imprinting
    A type of learned behavior with a significant innate component, acquired during a limited critical period. It is generally irreversible

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  • أ.رحاب
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    :Agnostic Behavior
    A type of behavior involving a contest of some kind that determines which competitor gains access to some resource, such as food or mates


    :Altruism
    The aiding of another individual at one's own risk or expense. Reducing one's individual fitness to increase the fitness of the recipient of the behavior



    :Associative Learning
    The acquired ability to associate one stimulus with another; includes classical and operant conditioning



    :Behavior
    (What/how an animal does something. Non-motor components of behavior and observable actions. Genetic and physiological mechanisms (results from both genes and environmental factors


    :Behavioral Ecology
    A heuristic approach based on the expectation that Darwinian fitness (reproductive success) is improved by optimal behavior


    :Classical Conditioning
    A type of associative learning; the association of a normally irrelevant stimulus with a fixed behavioral response. Learning to associate an arbitrary stimulus with a reward or punishment


    :Coefficient of Relatedness
    Proportion of genes that are identical in two individuals because of common ancestors. An important quantitative measure of inclusive fitness



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  • أ.رحاب
    كتب موضوع Biology: Glossary In Behavioral Ecology

    Biology: Glossary In Behavioral Ecology




    بســم الله الرحمــن الرحيـــم

    Biology

    Glossary In Behavioral Ecology





    In this tutorial, you'll find the Biology Glossary In

    Behavioral Ecology






    أ.رحـاب
    منتديات اختبارات القدرات والتحصيل


    التعديل الأخير تم بواسطة أ.رحاب; الساعة 05-09-2016, 10:45 PM.
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